Numerous compounds including vitamin C and beta carotene, as well as several polyphenolic compounds including gallic acid and their larger polymers gallotannins are contained within mangoes that have been linked to anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities.
The absorption, metabolism, and excretion of mango galloyl derivatives have not previously been investigated in humans. In a human pilot trial published in the journal of Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 11 healthy volunteers between the ages of 21 and 38 years old consumed 400g/day of mango-pulp for 10 days, with blood and urine samples taken on days one and 10 of the study following mango consumption.
Participants refrained from consuming dietary supplements and foods which could be sources of gallic acid such as berries, grapes, and tea for one week prior to the beginning of the study and during the 10 days of mango consumption.
It was first necessary to study how these compounds are metabolized in the body to determine if these polyphenolic compounds have potential benefits to human health at realistic food consumption amounts.
Following 10 days of mango consumption, seven metabolites of gallic acid were identified in the urine of healthy volunteers, and of those two microbial metabolites were found to be significantly more excreted. The presence of gallic acid and pyrogallol metabolites in human urine after the consumption of 400gms of mango indicates the absorption, metabolism, and excretion of mango galloyl derivative and confirms the bioavailability of these mango-derived metabolites.
The research shows that mangoes have the potential to enhance the diet as a source of gallic acid and gallotannins, which may possess anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties.