Posts Tagged “mango consumption”
Two recent studies point to the positive health outcomes of consuming mangos. Findings in two areas confirm mango consumption is associated with better overall diet quality and intake of nutrients.
There is the positive health outcomes of consuming mangos. Findings in two areas confirm mango consumption is associated with better overall diet quality and intake of nutrients. For example, snacking on mangos may improve glucose control and reduce inflammation in contrast to other sweet snacks.
With mangos consumed widely in global cuisines and 58% of Americans reporting snacking at least once a day in 2021, this new research provides added evidence that regularly consuming mangos may have health advantages and be relevant to cultural dietary preferences and current eating patterns.
“As immunity remains a priority for consumers today, we’ll continue to see a rise in plant-based options on menus to meet the demand,” Suwann Frison marketing manager at NMB Foodservice said. “Mangos contain over 20 different vitamins and minerals, making it a versatile and healthy ingredient.”
Snacking on mangos may improve glucose control and reduce inflammation in contrast to other sweet snacks.
As low fruit and vegetable consumption continues to contribute to diet-related chronic diseases like diabetes and heart disease, two new research studies find regular mango consumption may improve diets and help manage key risk factors that contribute to chronic disease.
Specifically, these new studies report findings in two areas: 1) mango consumption is associated with better overall diet quality and intake of nutrients that many children and adults lack at optimum levels, and 2) snacking on mangos may improve glucose control and reduce inflammation in contrast to other sweet snacks.
With mangos consumed widely in global cuisines and 58% of Americans reporting snacking at least once a day in 20211, this new research provides added evidence that regularly consuming mangos may have health advantages and be relevant to cultural dietary preferences and current eating patterns.
Mango consumption associated with higher diet quality and better intakes of nutrients of concern in children and adults
A recent observational study found positive outcomes in nutrient intakes, diet quality, and weight-related health outcomes in individuals who consume mangos versus those who do not2. The study, published in Nutrients in January 2022, used United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2018 data to compare the diets and nutrient intakes of mango consumers to people who did not consume mangos.
Both studies were supported by funds from the National Mango Board.
The study showed that children who regularly ate mango had higher intakes of immune-boosting vitamins A, C and B6, as well as fiber and potassium. Fiber and potassium are two of the four “nutrients of concern” as defined by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, which means many Americans are not meeting recommendations for these.
In adults, researchers found similar results, showing that mango consumption was associated with significantly greater daily intakes of fiber and potassium but also vitamins A, B12, C, E and folate, a vitamin critical during pregnancy and fetal development. For both children and adults, consuming mango was associated with a reduced intake in sodium and sugar, and for adults was associated with a reduced intake of cholesterol.
“We have known for a long time that there is a strong correlation between diet and chronic disease,” says Yanni Papanikolaou, researcher on the project. “This study reveals that both children and adults eating mangos tend to have significantly better diet quality overall along with higher intakes of fiber and potassium compared with those who don’t eat mangos. It is also important that mango fits into many diverse cuisines. Whole fruits are under consumed, and mango can encourage fruit consumption especially among growing diverse populations.”
Snacking on mangos associated with better glucose control and lower inflammation
In addition to these broad benefits of mango consumption, a separate pilot study, published in Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases in 2022 looked at mango as a snack and found that consuming whole mangos as a snack versus a control snack had better health outcomes in overweight and obese adults3. Given 97% of American adults consume snacks that contribute up to 24% of their daily energy intake4 this study sought to compare snacking on 100 calories of fresh mango daily to snacking on low-fat cookies that were equal in calories.
Twenty-seven adults participated in the study, all classified as overweight or obese based on Body Mass Index (BMI) and reported no known health conditions. Participants were given either mango or low-fat cookies as a snack while maintaining their usual diet and physical level for 12 weeks, and after a four-week wash-out period the alternating snack was given for another 12 weeks.
Researchers measured the effects on glucose, insulin, lipid profiles, liver function enzymes and inflammation. At the end of the trial period, findings indicated that mango consumption improved glycemic control (an individual’s ability to manage blood glucose levels, an important factor in preventing and managing diabetes) and reduced inflammation.
Results showed there was no drop in blood glucose when participants snacked on low-fat cookies. However, when snacking on mangos there was a statistically significant (p= 0.004) decrease in blood glucose levels at four weeks and again at 12 weeks, even though there was twice as much sugar, naturally occurring, in the mangos compared to the cookies. Researchers also observed statistically significant improvements to inflammation markers, total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC) and C-reactive protein (CRP), when snacking on mangos. TAC is a measurement of overall antioxidant capacity, or how well foods can prevent oxidation in cells. CRP is biomarker used to measure inflammation in the body. The research suggest that the antioxidants abundant in mangos offered more protection against inflammation compared to the cookies.
“The findings of this study show that antioxidants, fiber and polyphenols abundant in mango may help to offset sugar consumption and aide in glucose control. Antioxidants may also offer protection against inflammation” says Dr. Mee Young Hong, lead investigator on the study and Professor in the School of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences at San Diego State University. “Further research is needed but the initial findings are encouraging for people who enjoy sweet snacks.”
Some limitations in this study include sample size, using only one dose of mango, and measuring effects on participants without any pre-existing conditions. Further research should explore optimal dose of mango and examine long-term effects of mango consumption on those with metabolic conditions. It would also be of benefit to compare mango to a fiber-matched control snack to distinguish the effects of fiber versus the bioactive compounds in mangos.
With only 99 calories and over 20 different vitamins and minerals, a 1 cup serving of mango is nutrient-dense, making it a superfood. Because mangos are widely consumed in cultures around the world and United States, research into their health benefits contributes to a better understanding of their place in a healthy diet.
- Nutrition science researcher, Babajide Ojo at Oklahoma State University, was selected by the American Society for Nutrition (ASN) as one of five finalists to present his research at the 2016 ASN Young Minority Investigator Oral Competition. Ojo’s study investigated the effects of supplementing mangos (in the form of freeze-dried mango pulp) in mice fed a high fat diet on body composition, glucose homeostasis and gut inflammatory markers: tinyurl.com/zyz6dpc.
- Chuo Fang, PhD, of the department of Nutrition and Food Science at Texas A&M University investigated the potential role of mango and its microbial metabolites in regulating lipid metabolism and adipogenesis via the activation of AMPK in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes: tinyurl.com/zwe78kq.
- Researcher Matt Nemec, of the Interdisciplinary Program of Toxicology at Texas A&M University, studied the anti-proliferative activities of pyrogallol, an intestinal microbial metabolite of gallotannin, a mango polyphenol, on mice with ductal carcinoma in situ breast cancer (DCIS): tinyurl.com/ze3y5kx.
- Vinicius Paula Venancio, of the Department of Nutrition and Food Science at Texas A&M University, studied the consumption of 300 grams of mango compared to an equivalent amount of fiber (1 teaspoon of a fiber supplement) and its effect on abdominal distention and constipation in otherwise healthy human volunteers: tinyurl.com/h6pvwnn.
Numerous compounds including vitamin C and beta carotene, as well as several polyphenolic compounds including gallic acid and their larger polymers gallotannins are contained within mangoes that have been linked to anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities.
The absorption, metabolism, and excretion of mango galloyl derivatives have not previously been investigated in humans. In a human pilot trial published in the journal of Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 11 healthy volunteers between the ages of 21 and 38 years old consumed 400g/day of mango-pulp for 10 days, with blood and urine samples taken on days one and 10 of the study following mango consumption.
Participants refrained from consuming dietary supplements and foods which could be sources of gallic acid such as berries, grapes, and tea for one week prior to the beginning of the study and during the 10 days of mango consumption.
It was first necessary to study how these compounds are metabolized in the body to determine if these polyphenolic compounds have potential benefits to human health at realistic food consumption amounts.
Following 10 days of mango consumption, seven metabolites of gallic acid were identified in the urine of healthy volunteers, and of those two microbial metabolites were found to be significantly more excreted. The presence of gallic acid and pyrogallol metabolites in human urine after the consumption of 400gms of mango indicates the absorption, metabolism, and excretion of mango galloyl derivative and confirms the bioavailability of these mango-derived metabolites.
The research shows that mangoes have the potential to enhance the diet as a source of gallic acid and gallotannins, which may possess anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties.
The National Mango Board (NMB) conducts ongoing consumer research to explore consumer awareness, knowledge about mangos, buying habits, barriers to purchase and many other factors of consumer attitudes relative to mangos. Understanding consumer purchasing behavior is key to increasing mango consumption in the U.S.
In 2013, the NMB conducted an in-depth consumer attitude and usage study to better understand consumer purchasing behaviors. The overall goal was to measure consumer awareness and usage practices as they relate to mangos, and importantly, determine the extent to which shifts have taken place over time. In addition to tracking and updating who mango consumers are, why they buy the fruit, and what might encourage future purchases, the study also investigated health awareness and health perceptions toward mangos. Results highlight that overall, providing more information and education about mangos and keeping them in front of consumers at point-of-sale (POS) and in the media would help increase mango sales. Basic education is most needed by consumers since the research reflects not knowing how to choose and select a “good” mango, as well as what to do with it after purchase.
In 2014, the NMB conducted Qualitative Exploration Research, also known as focus groups, with small groups of mango buyers and non-buyers to provide direction on effective mango messaging. The study included discussions of mango associations, usage, likes and dislikes, and the buying or eating experience and then progressed through a series of messaging statements. The statements covered general, education, nutrition and sustainability messaging. Key findings include the overall positive mango associations with tropical and sweet; with nutrition being one of the strongest messages for consumers. Top interest was paid to “100% of daily Vitamin C in a single cup,” “20 vitamins and minerals” and “100 calories a cup.” Other opportunities for mango messaging include the lack of familiarity, not knowing what to do with a whole mango, and selection and cutting.
“Consumer research is vital to focusing our marketing strategies around the obstacles and opportunities that mangos present to consumers,” stated Megan McKenna, NMB Director of Marketing. “Armed with these findings, the mango industry can move forward with its outreach regarding mango selection, ripening, cutting, and usage since they continue to be the barriers to purchase.
About National Mango Board
The National Mango Board is an agriculture promotion group, which is supported by assessments from both domestic and imported mangos. The board was designed to drive awareness and consumption of fresh mangos in the U.S. The superfruit mango contains 100 calories, an excellent source of vitamins A and C, a good source of fiber and an amazing source of tropical flavor.
Mango availability per capita has increased 53 percent since 2005 to an estimated 2.87 pounds per year in 2013. Mango import volume for 2013 was 935 million pounds.